I was client and two missions running this happened to me.
The sequence was enter turret and fight, use slingshot to enter a crew ship then teleport directly back, re-enter the turret then trying exit the turret to repel boarders this would happen.
I couldn't see anything inside the ship except if I placed myself just right I could sometimes see the circle of the exit ship point. Once outside I could see normal again but re-entering the Railjack was still the same as the above screenies.
The missions afterwards I exited the crew ships via the airlock and this didn't happen.